unable to resist these mass advances. Accordingly,
regions like Central France and Northern Italy, once Mediterranean
lands, are to-day mainly Alpine in race. Furthermore, Mediterraneans
have seldom subdued Alpine peoples and imposed themselves as conquerors.
For these reasons there has been comparatively little mixture between
the two races.
different have been the relations between the Alpine and Nordic races.
Ever since the dawn of history the restless, energetic Nordics have
been coming down upon the Alpines, overwhelming their territories
and setting themselves up as masters. Wherever the odds have not been
too great the Nordics have usually won the batties. Yet the fact remains
that, racially speaking, the Alpines have not only held their own
but have actually gained ground at the Nordics' expense. Both in Eastern
and in Central Europe many regions once racially Nordic are to-day
inhabited by predominantly Alpine populations.
seeming paradox is explained by the Alpine qualities of tenacity,
instinctive solidarity, and dogged endurance. Their very passiveness
has helped to give them the ultimate victory. The Nordic might conquer
them and set himself up as master. The Alpines might submit, become
his loyal subjects, even accept his language and culture. Outwardly
the land might be Nordicized. But racially it would mean merely a
Nordic aristocracy laid like a thin top dressing on a solid Alpine
soil. The Alpines would cling to the land, stick together, and gradually
absorb their conquerors. Ultimately the region would be once more
inhabited by an almost wholly Al-
pine population, perhaps showing some Nordic traits
that would be slowly bred out of the stock.
the other hand, where Alpines have peopled regions once racially Nordic,
they have usually done so not by sudden conquest but by gradual infiltration.
Often such regions were temporarily underpopulated, the Nordic inhabitants
having been thinned by war or drained off by migration. Once in, however,
the Alpines would take firm root. Perhaps the Nordics might conquer
them and the Alpines cease to be independent political groups. Yet
racially they could survive and prosper.
is a striking example of all this. Down to the fall of the Roman Empire,
Germany was almost wholly a Nordic land. To-day it is mainly Alpine
in race. Only in Northwestern Germany is the population still predominantly
Nordic in blood. This change has come about through a long series
of wars, migrations, and other conditions that have favored the Alpines
at the Nordics' expense. It has also profoundly changed the character
of the German people. Compare the solid, well-disciplined, docile
German masses of to-day with the restless, fiercely individualistic
Teutonic tribes that surged across the Roman world and turned Britain
into a Nordic Anglo-Saxon land!
attitude of the present German people illustrates a trait characteristic
of Alpines generally -- the tendency to accept the rule of masterful
minorities. Left to themselves, Alpines rarely build strong, enduring
states, at least of any considerable size. Whether this is due to
lack of initiative and imagination, or to still other defects, it
is undoubtedly the case. The Alpine manages
his local affairs well enough. With his strong group
feeling, he evolves village and regional organizations that work smoothly.
But beyond that his political sense falters. The Alpines thus tend
to form small political units, which unite with difficulty and are
more likely to be at odds with one another. This is one of the chief
reasons why the Balkan peoples, who are of course mainly Alpines,
are always quarrelling and fighting among themselves.
the other hand, where Alpines are under the guidance of strong masters
they can be disciplined into powerful states. Russia is a notable
example. The early Russians, who like the other Slav tribes, were
practically pure-blooded Alpines, were divided into many groups at
chronic odds with one another and thus an easy prey to their neighbors.
So intolerable did this situation become that they actually invited
in foreign rulers, sending the following message to some Nordic Scandinavian
land is great and has everything in abundance, but it lacks order
and justice. Come and take possession and rule over us."
Scandinavians came, established a strong government, and laid the
foundations of the mighty Russian Empire. From that day to this Russia
has been ruled mainly by persons of non-Alpine blood. The present
Bolshevik government is no exception to the rule. Very few of its
members spring from the Alpine peasant masses.
is in fact the term which best describes the typical Alpine. Whether
in France, South Germany, Poland or Russia, the type is fundamentally
the same. On the contrary, there are no such peasant masses in
Scandinavia or the British Isles. Why? Because there
is no Alpine blood. Scandinavia is almost purely Nordic, and the British
Isles are either Nordic or Mediterranean in race. The total absence
of Alpine blood in the British Isles is undoubtedly one of the chief
reasons for the high qualities of its inhabitants.
despite the Alpine's many solid virtues, it seems to be the least
gifted of the three European stocks. Its type, as already stated,
is the peasant. In cities the Alpine tends to be lower middle class
-- what the French call petit bourgeois. The effect of Alpine blood
upon a nation, though steadying, is also levelling, if not depressing.
Compared with either Nordics or Mediterraneans, the Alpine is a passive
element. The Alpine race has contributed little that is truly great
to politics, art or ideas. Yet its tenacity, endurance, and vitality
favor its steady growth, and wherever it has a foothold it appears
to be increasing at the expense of the Nordic and Mediterranean elements.
us now consider the third great European stock-the Nordic race. The
Nordics seem to have originated in Northeastern Europe, though the
shores of the Baltic Sea have been the racial centre since very early
are a distinctly northern stock, inured to cold and storm; but they
do not thrive in hot, sunny southlands. They also seem to take naturally
to the sea.
outstanding characteristic of the Nordic race is its restless creative
energy. In this peculiar quality it surpasses not only the other European
stocks but also all the other branches of mankind. The Nordics are
assuredly the most masterful breed that the world has
ever seen. For thousands of years they have poured
forth from their northland homes in conquering waves over Europe and
many parts of Asia as well. The Aryan invaders of India were Nordics;
so were the ancient Persians; while the Greeks and Romans of classic
times contained much Nordic blood, at least among the ruling classes.
and everywhere the Nordics have been a race of warriors, sailors,
pioneers, and explorers. Unlike the Alpines, with their slow mass
migrations and peaceful penetration, the Nordics have ranged far and
wide, often in small numbers, but winning their way by their fierce
energy and great fighting power. Conquering peoples sometimes vastly
superior in numbers, the Nordics have settled down as an aristocratic
ruling class, and they have usually known how to perpetuate their
rule because of their high political ability. Political ability is
one of the Nordics' chief gifts, which they display both in ruling
others and in ruling themselves.
Nordic is at once democratic and aristocratic. Among his own kind
he is democratic. Profoundly individualistic and touchy about his
personal rights, neither he nor his fellows will tolerate tyranny.
None of the primitive Nordic tribes had despotic rulers, while modern
constitutional government was developed by the Nordic English and
has not been really successful except among peoples with a strong
strain of Nordic blood.
the Nordic establishes himself among other races he is instinctively
aristocratic. Feeling himself the ruler and the superior, he prides
himself on his race and seeks to guard the purity of his blood. Throughout
rope to-day the old aristocratic class tends to be
of Nordic origin. Even in countries where the Nordic element has been
mainly bred out of the population what little Nordic blood remains
is found chiefly concentrated in the old upper-class families.
better illustrates the persistence of race qualities than the way
in which Nordics have everywhere shown the same striking traits. From
the dawn of history to the present day they have acted very much the
same. Look at the Nordic Aryan invaders of India as described in the
old Sanscrit scriptures! Those first Nordics to appear upon the stage
of history entered India nearly 4000 years ago. Yet the family likeness
is unmistakable. Tall, fair; hard fighting, yet jovial; loving good
food, drink, fresh air, and exercise; chivalrous toward their women;
despising the little dark negroid aborigines as monkeys, and setting
up a rigid color line -- how like our Anglo-Saxon pioneers!
description of the ancient Aryans shows us merely one of the many
Nordic stocks that have racially perished. For not only in Asia but
also in Southern and Eastern Europe, Nordic elements, once numerous
and powerful, have either entirely disappeared or to-day survive as
mere lingering traces with scant significance in the national life
of the countries where they are found. Only where Nordics have thoroughly
occupied a country, expelling or overwhelming the previous inhabitants,
has the racial conquest been permanent. The best European examples
of this are England and Scotland. The Anglo-Saxon invaders turned
both countries into Nordic lands, the former Mediterranean population
appearing. In Wales and Ireland, on the contrary,
the Nordics never became more than a conquering aristocracy, so that
in those countries the old Mediterranean element still forms the mass
of the population.
greatest expansion of the Nordic race has in fact occurred outside
Europe -- in the United States, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand.
Here the few aborigines of very primitive types were quickly eliminated
and populations of practically pure Nordic type were established,
since the pioneering settlers were overwhelmingly of Nordic stock.
The only exception was the settlers of French Canada, who were mainly
Alpine in race. Whether these Nordic conquests will be racially permanent
is of course impossible to say. In the United States especially, recent
immigration has brought in floods of Alpine and Mediterranean blood,
and unless immigration from Southern and Eastern Europe is restricted
and kept restricted the racial character of the American people will
be rapidly and radically altered. In Canada the French element is
showing the usual Alpine characteristics -- clinging to the soil,
sticking together, and slowly but surely enlarging its racial area.
However, in all these lands the Nordic element still forms the bulk
of the population and can, if it so elects, secure its racial future.
the continent of Europe Nordic race prospects are not so bright. Everywhere
save in Scandinavia -- where it forms virtually the entire population
-- the Nordic element seems to be rapidly on the wane. Old handicaps,
like war and
migration, which have penalized the race in the past have been supplemented
by new handicaps, like industrialism and city life, the upshot being
a steady de-
cline of the Nordics in favor of the Alpine and Mediterranean
is really startling when one looks back into history and sees how
the Nordics have diminished racially in Europe during the past 1000
years. Their heyday was the fall of the Roman Empire. At that time
and for centuries thereafter, both Western and Central Europe were
strongly Nordic. The Alpine and Mediterranean elements were either
reduced to serfdom or driven into the more mountainous and infertile
then, however, the tide has been running the other way. War has been
a terrible scourge to the Nordic race. In the numberless wars that
have raged in Europe the Nordics have done most of the fighting and
suffered most of the losses, while the age of discovery and colonization
that began with Columbus still further thinned their ranks in Europe,
since it was adventurous Nordics who formed the overwhelming majority
of explorers and pioneers to new lands. Perhaps even more serious
blows have been dealt the race by the conditions of modem life.
century ago Europe began to be transformed from an agricultural to
an urbanized, industrial area. Countless cities and manufacturing
centres grew up, where men were close packed and were subjected to
all the evils of congested living. Of course, such conditions are
not ideal for any stock. Nevertheless, the Nordic suffered more than
any one else. The Nordic is essentially a high-standard man. He requires
healthful living conditions, and pines when deprived of good food,
fresh air, and exercise. So long as Europe was mainly agricultural
the Nordic usually got these things. In fact, in cool North-
ern and Central Europe an agricultural environment
actually favored the big blond Nordic as against the slighter, less
muscular Mediterranean, while in the hotter south the Nordic upper
class, being the rulers, were protected from field labor and thus
survived as an aristocracy. Under modern conditions, however, the
crowded city and the cramped factory weed out the Nordic much faster
than they do the Alpine or the Mediterranean, both of which stocks
seem to be able to stand such an environment with less damage to themselves.
It is needless to add that the late war and its aftermath have been
terrible blows to the Nordic race.
rapid decline of the Nordic stock in Europe is a very serious matter.
The Nordic's great energy, political ability, and high level of intelligence
are vital to Europe's prosperity and progress. The peculiar qualities
of the Nordic intellect are just the ones which to-day would be most
missed. One of the Nordic's most valuable traits is his adventurous
curiosity. This makes him preeminent not only as a pioneer and explorer
but also as an inventor and scientific investigator. The Mediterranean
probably excels the Nordic in music and the fine arts. But in the
intellectual fields the Nordic excels the Mediterranean and vastly
outstrips the Alpine. Our modern scientific age is mainly a product
of Nordic genius. Deprived of that genius, it would rapidly decline.
It therefore seems as though those nations which possess most Nordic
blood will tend to be the most progressive as well as the most energetic
and politically able. Important assets, these, for the future!
us now take a brief survey of the present racial
make-up of the European nations, based upon the latest
scientific estimates that have been made. Our survey will shatter
many old notions that used to prevail when race was confused with
matters like language and culture. For example, it used to be thought
that France, Italy, and Spain were all members of a Latin race. We
now know that there never was any such race and that these three nations
differ widely in racial make-up.
our survey with the British Isles, the first important point to be
noted is the total absence of Alpine blood. England and Scotland and
are predominantly Nordic, while Wales and Ireland are predominantly
Mediterranean. Scotland is the most Nordic, over four-fifths of the
population being of that blood. England is about four-fifths Nordic
and one-fifth Mediterranean. In England the Mediterranean element
seems to be increasing. A century or two ago it was probably insignificant.
Since then the growth of city and factory life, emigration of Nordics,
and immigration of Welsh and Irish laborers have combined to make
the Mediterranean element a growing factor. Wales seems to be about
three-fifths Mediterranean, while Ireland is over two-thirds Mediterranean
to the Continent, we find that France is racially a composite nation,
all three European races being strongly represented in its population.
The Alpine element is the largest, being slightly more numerous than
the two other stocks put together. Roughly speaking, the Nordics are
clustered in the north and the Mediterraneans in the south, the Alpines
forming a broad band between. There are, however, many exceptions
to this, the
race map of France being quite complicated. There
is also a distinct connection between race and social status. The
upper classes and the city populations tend to be Nordic or Mediterranean,
while the peasantry tend to be Alpine in blood. The solid French peasant
is certainly a good Alpine type.
is predominantly a Mediterranean nation, most of the Spanish people
belonging to that race. Nordic blood is mainly confined to the upper
classes. The Spanish Alpines are tucked away in the extreme north
of the country. They are the descendants of Alpines who entered Spain
many thousand years ago; but the racial traits still persist, and
the inhabitants of these districts are recognized to-day as being
unusually solid, tenacious, and hardworking.
for Portugal, it is overwhelmingly Mediterranean in race. There are
no Alpines and very few Nordics. In Southern Portugal the population
is distinctly tinged with negro blood. Some centuries ago large numbers
of negroes were brought in as slaves to work on the great estates
of the south, which has an almost semitropical climate. Furthermore,
a certain amount of negro blood seeps in continually from Portugal's
African colonies. The result is that the populations both of the southern
countryside and of the port towns show many negroid types. The effect
of this African infusion upon the Portuguese stock has undoubtedly
been a depressing one.
though politically united, is racially divided into two very different
peoples. The north is inhabited by a sturdy Alpine stock, considerably
leavened with Nordic blood. The south is almost purely Mediterranean
tinctured in the extreme south -- especially in Sicily
-- by African and Asiatic strains. The racial difference between north
and south is so evident that it strikes even the casual tourist. The
Italians recognize it frankly. It is well known that the north runs
Italy and looks down on the backward south.
now to Northern Europe, we find the Scandinavian nations overwhelmingly
of Nordic blood. In Norway and Denmark there is a small Alpine element,
descended, as already stated, from migrations in prehistoric times.
Sweden, however, is 100 per cent Nordic -- the only purely Nordic
nation in the world.
is predominantly Nordic, with a small Alpine element. Belgium, on
the other hand, is sharply divided on race lines. The open plains
of Northern and Western Belgium are inhabited by a strongly Nordic
stock -- the Flemings. The hilly, wooded regions of Southeastern Belgium
are inhabited by a strongly Alpine stock -- the Walloons. The two
stocks differ markedly in temperament, speak different languages,
and instinctively dislike each other. Common fear of powerful neighbors
alone keeps them politically together, and it is very possible that
Belgium may some day split up.
racial situation in Germany is decidedly complicated. Taken as a whole,
Germany is Alpine rather than Nordic in race, nearly two-thirds of
its population being classifiable as Alpines, while the remainder
are predominantly Nordic in blood. This, however, is by no means the
whole story. To begin with, in Germany, perhaps more than anywhere
else in Europe, the two races have intermarried wholesale. It is probable
that a clear ma-
jority of the German people are of mixed blood. This
is particularly true of Central Germany, where one sees great numbers
of what scientists call disharmonic types --persons, say, with blondish
hair and light eyes, yet with round Alpine heads and thick-set bodies.
In Northwestern Germany, however, the population is almost purely
Nordic, while in the southern highlands and the eastern provinces
the peasantry is practically pure Alpine. Yet here again we get a
fresh complication, because in both Southern and Eastern Germany race
runs strongly with social status. Even in the most Alpine parts of
Germany the aristocracy tends to be Nordic, while the towns are more
Nordic than the countryside. This seems to be one of the chief reasons
for the marked class distinctions that prevail in German social life.
Again, racial differences have much to do with the contrasts in temperament
and the latent dislike that exists between north and south.
already remarked, Germany has for centuries been getting more Alpine
in blood. The terrible wars that ravaged Germany in the past were
immensely destructive of Nordic life. The late war continued this
process, while Germany's present economic situation bears much harder
on its Nordic than on its Alpine elements. The Alpinization of Germany
is proceeding rapidly to-day.
and German Austria are racially much the same as Southern Germany.
Both countries are predominantly Alpine in blood, but with a strong
Nordic element, much intermarriage between the races, and a tendency
of Nordic blood to prevail in the upper classes and the town populations.
The racial make-up of Switzerland is about
two-thirds Alpine and one-third Nordic. In German
Austria the Nordic element is probably not quite so numerous.
we touch Eastern Europe we find racial conditions very different from
those in the countries to the west. In Western Europe the racial elements
have been long established and are more or less adjusted to one another.
In Eastern Europe, on the other hand, racial movements have been more
violent and recent, and racial adjustments are not well established.
The whole situation is at once less stable and more complex.
the greater part of this immense area, stretching from Russia to the
Balkan Peninsula, Alpine stocks tend to form the most numerous racial
element. This is especially true of the various Slav peoples. Of course,
there is no such thing as a Slav race, any more than there is such
a thing as a Latin race. In each case the phrase really means a group
of peoples with similar languages and cultures. With the Slavs, the
fact that they belong mainly to the same race has made a more or less
instinctive bond of sympathy between them. Yet this sympathy has not
produced the profound political consequences that might offhand be
assumed. It has not produced any general political union between the
Slav peoples. That would have been dead against the Alpine racial
temperament, which, as we have already seen, tends to relatively small
political groups more apt to quarrel than to fuse.
Alpines are, however, merely the most numerous element in the East
European racial situation. There is considerable Nordic blood in Northwestern
Russia and a good deal of Mediterranean blood in the Balkans, especially
in Greece, which is mainly a Mediterranean nation.
Besides these familiar stocks, however, there are
in Eastem Europe powerful Asiatic elements that make fresh difficulties.
For the past 1500 years Eastern Europe has experienced a long series
of Asiatic invasions. These Asiatic elements -- Huns, Mongols, Tartars,
Turks, Jews, Gypsies, and many others -- have left their mark on the
various East European populations. In some parts they have widely
intermarried; in other parts they have remained largely distinct,
forming separate castes or communities. But in both cases the general
effect has been to confuse and complicate the situation.
ends our preliminary survey. In subsequent chapters we will view present-day
conditions in the various parts of Europe, discussing many things,
but not forgetting that racial factor, which, though often overlooked
in human affairs, is perhaps the most fundamental of all.