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Effective Group Problem Solving Cover Contents Preface Chapter One
  Chapter Two Index Catalog Page

 

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Index



Absenteeism: how to deal with, 36; problems with, 19
Ackoff, R. L., 104, 181
Ad hoc groups, INGT accommodation of: bargaining teams, 122-124; ...confrontation meeting committees, 124-127; job redesign teams, 127;
...project teams, 125-126; volunteer venture teams, 126-127
Adelman, L., 90, 184 Agenda, hidden, 17-18
Allocation of group time: need to avoid premature evaluation, 34; problems with ...present approaches, 16
Alternation ranking technique, use of, in voting: limitations to use of rank scores, ...67-68; procedure, 61
Altman, S., 191
Alutto, J. A., 168, 181
Anderson, L., 70, 187
Andrews, I., 12, 182
Announcement of the meeting, 44-47
Anonymity of authorship, need for, 23-29
Arbose, J., 108, 181
Argyris, C., xv, 25, 181
Armstrong, B., 154, 181
Aronovitch, C., 148, 184-185
Arrow, K., 66, 181
AT&T, teleconference rooms planned by, 143
Attention span, limits to, 34-36
Attitude survey program. See Survey feedback program
Audio-only teleconferencing: adapting INGT to enhance effectiveness of, 149-
...150; "meet me" approach for, 142; nature of, and limitations to, 142; special ...procedures needed, 148-150; versus video conferencing and face-to-face ...meetings, 146-147
Audio teleconferencing with graphics transmission: adapting INGT to enhance ...effectiveness of, 150-151; nature and performance of, 143; types of graphics ...transmission equipment, 143
Autonomous or self-managing work groups: early experience at General Motors ...with, 109-110; initial experience at Volvo's

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Skodeverken with, 108; origins, 107-108; problems with, 107109; roles of INGT to enhance development and performance of, 11 0-111; tendency toward ..."groupthink" within, III

Bales, R. F., 191
Bandwagon effect, 17
Bargaining, roles of INGT in, 122-124, 154-156
Bargaining teams. See Bargaining
Bay of Pigs fiasco, role of psuedo-participation in, 19-20
Beckhard, R., 125, 181
Bednar, D. A., 118, 191-192
Beer, M., 183
Behavior Modeling training: basic components of, 159; for improving one-on-
...one relations, 158-164; learning-point modules for, 161-164; for survey-
...
feedback committee leaders, 120
Bell, C. H., Jr., 128, 183
Birrell, J. A., 146, 181
Bittel, L. R.,.183
Bittel, M. A., 183
BNA Films, 7, 182
Boards, employee representation on, 112-114
Boeing, video teleconferencing system of, 147
Borda, J. c., 66, 182
Borgatta, E. F., 191
Bowers, D., 5, 187
Bragg, J., 12, 182
Brainstorming, how to facilitate, 33-34
"Bridge," for electronic conference, 142
Broedling, L., 32, 186
Bullock, R. J., 1, 186

Camp David accord, approach used, 155
Card Collection Round, 49-51; when to discontinue, 54
Carey, R. G., 2, 168, 182
Censorship, self-imposed, 23
"Champions" of venture teams, why they need INGT, 126-127
Chechile, R. A., 41, 66, 182
Christie, B., 146, 190
Coch and French study, 3-5
Coch. L, 5, 182
Codetermination boards: dissatisfaction with, 114; roles of INGT to enhance
...performance of, 114-115; in Scandinavia, 112
Cole, R. E., 118, 182 Communications Studies Group, 146
Community-wide planning. See Program planning
Complacency, generated by success, 139-140
Computer teleconferencing: adaptation of INGT to enhance effectiveness, 152-
...153; internationally, 145-146, 155-156; nature of, and uniquely useful feature
...of, 144-146; service companies for, 142; user reactions to, 155-156; versus
...face-to-face meetings, 148
Condorcet, M., 66, 182
Conflict management: in international relations, 154-156, 163-164; learning
...points for, 163-164. See also Principled negotiation
Confrontation meeting committees: purpose of, 124; roles of INGT in enhancing
...effectiveness of, 125; when appropriate to use, 125
Consolidated list of multiple-group outputs, 82-83
Consolidated meeting of multiple group participants, 83-84
Consultants, problems in utilizing, 20, 26-27
Control theory, support for participative approaches, 130-131
Cooperation versus individualistic effort, with and without inter-group
...competition, 103
Cotton, J. L., 112, 182
Cowan, R., 142, 182

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Creativity, how to facilitate, 23-29, 33-34,85-86, 91
Cross, T., 142, 145, 185 Cultures, different, applicability of INGT to, 167-168
Cunningham, J. B., 186

Dalkey, N., 32, 93, 182
Dearborn, D., 24, 182-183
Decision-making. See Participation, in decision-making
Decisions: adjustment for making inter-group comparisons, 67, 7277; enhancing ...acceptance of, 38; improving quality of, 23-27, 38-39; multiple criteria for ...making, 89-90
Dedicated room, for teleconferences, 143
Defining purpose: indicate what special constraints/opportunities exist, 31-32; ...need to separate from solution phase, 29-30; in program planning, 85-86; use ...one purpose for one meeting, 30
Delbecq, A. L., 30, 34, 42, 68, 82, 85,93, 182, 185, 191
Delphi technique, modified for INGT, 32
Democratization of the workplace: via employee representation on boards, 112-
...114; fears produced by, 108-109; importance of perceived control over job-
...related decisions, 129-132; need for, 1-2
Dent, J., 25, 187
Desire to participate: across different cultures, 167-168; current opportunities are
...insufficient, 12; individual differences in relation to, 131-132; varies according
...to issue, 131
Dialectical inquiry, 140
Discontinuity problem, due to interruptions of meeting process, dealing with, 36
Discussion phase, 54-59
Discussion guidelines, 39-40, 56-59
Display materials: equipment and supplies needed to develop, 48; how to
...develop, 51-53; storage of, 70; uses of, 32-37, 70-72
Display of inputs. See Display materials
Distribution list of inputs, 43-44
Document review meeting: pre-meeting steps, 78-79; procedure for adopting
...changes to a document, 79-81; uses in program planning, 88-89
Dodd, W. E., 120, 183
Donnelly Mirrors, use of quality circles, 117
Dray, S. M., 143, 189
Driscoll, J. W., 1I5, 116, 183
Dyer, D., 186

EIES, electronic information exchange system, 145, 148, 155
Emotionalism: defusing it, 36, 154-156, 158; harnessing it by identifying stylistic
...objectives, 104-105; in international relations, 154-156
Equipment, needed for INGT meeting, 48
Evaluation of inputs, need to defer, 33-34

Facilitation of group development. See Teambuilding
Facsimile machine (FAX), uses of, for teleconferencing, 143, 150-
...151
Fear: on the part of group members about making contributions, 1920, 23, 110;
...on the part of traditional supervisors about movement toward greater group
...self-management, 108-109
Fein, M., 8, 113, 115, 183
Fifteen percent rule, 61-62
Finger, J. R., Jr., 34, 187
First vote: how to handle ties, 61-62; procedure for, 61-65; question to pose for,
...60; sample bal-

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...lot for, 63; sample tally sheet for, 64
Fischhoff, B., 34, 183
Fisher, R., 122, 123, 124, 155, 183
Fleishman, E. A., 5, 129, 183
Fox, W. M., 7, 41, 114, 161, 162, 164, 183
Frankenhauser, M., 129, 183
French, j.R.P., 5, 182, 187
French, W. L., 128, 183
Friedman, L. N., 129, 184
Frost, C. F., 13, 113, 183, 184

Gamesmanship, participation undermining: on the part of the negative-power
...leader, 133; through removal of displayed material, 37; through use of the ..."bandwagon effect," 17; in voting, 41
Gardell, B., 129, 183, 185
Geiss, G. R., 191
General Motors; early experience with autonomous work groups, 109-110; new Saturn Corporation of, 135
Glass, D. C., 129, 184
Goal setting, participatively set versus assigned goals, 3-6
Gold, E., 141
Golembiewski, R. T., 137, 184 Goodman, P. S., 18, 184
Group climate, participation-engendering: impact of leader contributions upon,
...26; influence of voting upon, 40-41; need to limit scope of discussion for, 39-
...40; and relevance of development and maintenance of genuine participation
...opportunity, 129-133
Group development. See Team building
Group facilitator, See Facilitator, of group development
Group process: achievements with conventional participation procedures of, 3-
...13; for defining purpose, 29-32; for displaying
...inputs, 33-36; for discouraging coercive pressures, 39-40; discussion ...guidelines for, 39-40, 56-59; functions of anonymous inputting for, 23-29; for ...in-meeting idea generation and refinement, 49-53; limitations to conventional ...procedures of, 1521; for making changes to inputs, 52-53; need for training in,
...22, 118; overview of all INGT elements, 93-101; pre-meeting activity that
...enhances, 32-33, 43-48; problem-mindedness versus solution-mindedness
...phases of, 30; in program planning, 8586; via teleconferences, 141-153, 155-
...156; test-yourself quiz about INGT basics of, with answers, 169-180; for
...voting, 60-77. See also Group process, problems with; Leadership; ...Participation, in decision-making
Group process, problems with: absenteeism and tardiness, 19; the dysfunctional ...influence of participant status, 18; the hidden agenda problem, 17-18; the ...inefficient utilization of outside experts, 20; the inhibiting effects of fear, 19-
...20, 23, 108-109; of leader apprehension about maintaining control, 18-19;
...time requirements, 21. See also Gamesmanship
Groupthink, 19-20; in autonomous or self-managing work groups, 111
Guetzkow, H., 17, 37,116, 184
Gustafson, D. H., 42, 82, 85, 93, 183
Gustavsen, B., 112, 184
Guzzo, R. A., 184
Gyr, J., 17,37, 116, 184

Hackman, R., Jr., 127-184
Hammond, K. R., 90,184
Hare, A. P., 18, 28, 184, 191
Harris, R. T., 125, 181
Hedberg, B., 21, 184

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Helmer, 0., 32, 93, 182
Henry, E. R., 61, 184
Hilgendorf, E. L., 108, 184
Hill, R., 117, 184
Hiltz, S. R., 148, 155, 184-185
Hinrichs, R.,Jr., 6, 185
Hoffman, L., 7, 38, 187
Hofstede, G., 25, 167, 185, 189
Honeywell, teleconference rooms of, 143
Hosking, D. M., 186
Huber, G. P., 68, 185
Humnius, G., 112, 184
Hunt, J. G., 2, 168, 185, 186 Huseman, R. C., 188

IBM: international computer conferencing by, 145-146; training for survey
...feedback at, 120
IDE Research Group, 2, 168, 185
Idea generation, how to facilitate, 23-29, 33-34; during a meeting, 49-53; for ...program planning, 85-86. See also Pre-meeting activity
Identification of improvements to existing documents, options, other
...opportunities, positions, problems, and solutions. See Problem solving
Imberman, W., 118, 185
Improshare: importance of participative decision making with, 113; performance
...of, 8; roles of INGT in enhancing performance of labor-management
...committees for, 115-117
Improved Nominal Group Technique: advantages over Nominal Group Technique, 93-94; origin of, 41-42; overview of elements, 93-101; size limit for ...groups using, 93
Incentives, alone versus in conjunction with participative decision making, 3-5,
...10-ll
Ingle, S., 117, 118, 185
INGT. See Improved Nominal Group Technique
Institute of Nuclear Power Operators, coordination of computer conferences by,
...145
Intergroup procedures: for comparing outcome priorities, 67, 72-77; for multiple
...groups to deal with the same issue, 82-92
International relations: INGT in relation to, 154-156; learning points for dealing
...with conflict in, 163-164
Irving, B. L., 108, 184
Ivancevich, J. M., 131, 185

Janis, I. L., 20, 26, 185
Job design: importance of perceived control over job-related decisions in, 129-
...132; linkage of, with off-work activity, 22
Job redesign, role of INGT in diagnosing for, 127
Johansson, G., 185
Johnson, D., 103, 185
Johnson, K., 148, 184-185
Johnson, R., 103, 184
Kanter, R. M., 133, 185
Karasek, R. A., 22, 129, 185
Kelleher, K., 142, 145, 185
Kelman, H., 154, 181
Krembs, G. M., 145, 185-186
Kushell, E., 118, 186

Labor-management committees: codetermination boards, 112; Multiple
...Management committees, 113-114; peaking-out problem of, 116; for ...processing survey feedback data, 120-121; roles of INGT in enhancing
...performance of, 115-117; screening committees of Scanlon and Rucker plans,
...112-113
Latham, G., 32, 186
Lau, A., 32, 186
Lawler, E. E., 2, 14, 22, 110, 135, 186
Lawrence, P. R., 186
Lazer, E. A., 189

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Leadership: of community-wide and organization-wide program planning, 84-92;
...fears experienced by, due to movement toward greater group self-
...management, 108-109; guidelines for leading group discussion, 39-40, 56-59;
...handling by, of no-discussion change proposals, 52-53; of in-meeting idea
...generation and refinement, 4953; need for training in, 22; non-obtrusive
...contributions by, 26; overview of INGT elements for, 93-101; pre-meeting
...activity of, 32-33, 43-48; problems of, in leading problem-solving groups, 15-
...21; in program planning, 8586, 88; self-deception, 23-25; self-evaluation ...versus anonymous subordinate input, 25; special dilemma with, on part of the ...new leader, 15, 27; status, as a problem, 25-26; test-yourself quiz on INGT ...basics of, with answers, 169-180; and the two faces of power, 132-133; in a ...volunteer organization, 13. See also Group process; Group process, problems ...with; Participation, in decision-making
League of Women Voters, importance of participative leadership to, 13
Learning-point modules, for Behavior Modeling: Mediating Between Conflicting
...Individuals or Groups, 163-164; Nonjudgmental Information Gathering, 161; ...Remedial Action, 162
Lichtenstein, S., 34, 183
Likert, J., 9, 186
Likert, R., 9, 13, 25, 104, 186
Long, R. ]., 114, 186
Lorge, I., 18,39, 191
Low-status group members, problems of, 27-28

McClelland, D. C., 133, 186
McCormick and Company, Multiple Management at, 113-114
MacKinnon, W. J., 70,187
McMahon, ]. T., 130, 187
McMurry, F., 61, 187
Madsen, D. B., 34, 187
Maier, N.R.F., 7,17,38,91,187
Management by group objectives (MBGO), 105-106
Management by objectives (MBO): need for management by group objectives in
...conjunction with, 103-104; problems with, 102104; roles of INGT for ...enhancing performance of, 104-106
Management of change: need for, 134; organization for, 134; related fears to
...deal with, 108-109; roles of INGT in enhancing effectiveness of, 111, 134
Mann, F., 25, 187
Manz, C. C., 110, Ill, 138, 187
Mares, W., 108, 110, 112, 190
Marrow, A., 5, 187
Maruyama, G., 103, 185
Mason, R. 0., 140, 187
MBGO. See Management by group objectives
MBO. See Management by objectives
Mediating Between Conflicting Individuals or Groups, module for Behavior Modeling training, 163-164
Meeting-room, requirements for INGT, 48
"Meet me" electronic conference bridge, 142
Mental strain and output pressure, moderation of, by perceived control over job-
...related decisions, 130
Mento, A. J., 118, 187-188
Milgram, S., 26, 188
Miller, G. A., 34, 68, 188
Miner, J. B., 102, 127, 130, 188
Mintzberg, H., 32, 188
Mitroff, I. I., 140, 187
Mohrman, S., 28-29, 129, 188

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Moore, B. E., 8, 112, 188 Multiple-group problem solving:
...consolidated meeting of all participants of, 83-84; meeting of group leaders to
.. meld outputs of, 82-83; program planning, 84-92; size limit for each group, 93
Multiple management committees: performance of, of McCormick and
...Company, 113-114; roles of INGT in enhancing performance of, 116-117

Name: Problems or Needs Chart, for program planning, 86-88
National Science Foundation, survey of field studies on worker
...participation, 14
Negotiation Project, of Harvard University, 122
Neider, L. L., 11, 188
Nelson, D., 103, 185
New-design or "greenfield" plants: extent of development of, 135; usefulness of
...INGT to, 136
New Jersey Institute of Technology, Electronic Information Exchange System
...(EIES) operated by, 145
Newman, A., 32, 186
NGT. See Nominal Group Technique
Nightingale, D. V., 139, 188
Nisberg, J. N., 108, 109, 190
No-discussion change proposals, 52-53, 57.
Nominal Group Technique: effectiveness of, compared with conventional
...procedures, 42; limitations to, 93-94
Nonjudgmental Information Gathering, module for Behavior Modeling training,
...161
Norwegian merchant marine, quality-of-work-life studies in, 9-10
Nutt, P. G, 30, 188
Nystrom, P., 2l, 184
Objectives, selection of. See Program planning, Stylistic
...objectives
O'Boyle, T. F., 2, 188
OD. See Organization Development
OD facilitator: action-research responsibility of, 128, 138; managing change
...approach for, 134; uses of INGT for, 137-140
Oldham, G. R., 127, 184
Olgren, G, 182 .
One-on-one relationships, INGT principles in relation to, 157-164
Organization Development (OD): action-research orientation of, 128; early
...efforts with, 9-10, 109-110; enhancing and maintaining participation
...opportunity, a key factor in, 129-133; expressed in new-design or "green field"
...plants, 135-136; impact of negative use of power upon, 132-133; maintaining
...the gains of, need for periodic assessment, 139-140; roles of INGT in
...enhancing effectiveness of, 128, 132-140; special problems of, implementation
...in the public sector, 136-137
Organization-wide planning. See Program planning
Ouchi, W. G., 118, 188 Over-participation, problem of, 131-132

Parker, L., 182
Parliamentary procedure: limitations to, 16-17; subversive use of
... "bandwagon effect" with, 17
Parnes, S. j., 33, 189
Participants: discouraging coercive pressures on, 39-40; facilitation of in-meeting
...contributions by, 49-53; facilitation of pre-meeting contributions by, 43-48
Participation, impact on performance, 3-6, 7-9, 10-12, 14, 103

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Participation, in decision making: concern for larger setting of, to make viable,
...14; cross-cultural, desire for, 1-2; differences in perception of legitimacy of,
...167; for community-wide and organization-wide program planning, 84-92;
...how to deal with absenteeism/tardiness problems during, 36; how to get
...candid contributions with regard to, 24-27, 39, 49-53; importance of
...developing and maintaining perceived opportunity for, 129-133; via labor-
...management boards and committees, 112-114; linkage of, with regard to off-
...work activity, 22; nine principles, for, 23-41; by teleconferencing, 141-153,
...155-156; why important, 1-14, 103. See also Group process; Group process,
...problems with; Leadership
Participation, opportunity for: during the meeting, 49-53; need for assurance of,
...37-38; prior to meeting, 43-48
Participation studies, involving: automobile mechanics, 34-36; elementary school
...teachers, 28-29; factory supervisors, 130; factory workers, 3-6, 7-8, 11, 22,
...130-131, 135; hospital laundry employees, 12; merchant marine personnel, 9-
...10; outside salespeople, 8-9; project engineers, 131-132; retail sales clerks, 10-
...11; teleconferees, 146-148, 155-156; volunteers, 13
Peaking-out problem, loss of interest and involvement, 116
Pesci, M. L., 120, 183
Peters, T. J., 104, 105, 126, 189
Point assignment, use of in voting, 69
Power: the two faces of, positive and negative, 132-133; use of, in relation to
...the development of trust, 28-29
Power distance, cross-cultural differences in perception of, 167
Prem, D. G, 143, 189
Premature evaluation, disadvantages of, 33-34
Pre-meeting activity: equipment and supplies needed for, 48; to find deficiencies
...and make improvements in written proposals or other documents, 46-47; to
...identify opportunities, options, positions, problems, 43-44; and solutions, 45-
...46; preparation of list of inputs to distribute in advance, as part of, 43-44;
...values of, 32-33; when there is little time, 44
Principled Negotiation, of Harvard's Negotiation Project: contribution of, to
...behavior modeling module on Mediating Between Conflicting Individuals or
...Groups, 160; expressed need in, for INGT elements, 124; nature of, 122-124;
...roles of INGT in enhancing effectiveness of, 124; use of, in international
...negotiations, 155
Principles for effective participation: allow a single, unexplained objection to
...block any proposed change to an input, 39-40; always use anonymous voting,
...40-41; assure anonymity of input authorship, 23-29; assure discussion
...opportunity for all display items, 37-38; collect and distribute inputs before
...meeting, 32-33; defer in-depth evaluation until all inputs are on display, and
...maintain the display throughout the meeting, 33-37; define purpose
...realistically, 29-32; limit discussion to desired clarification and presentation of
...pros and cons, 39; provide a second-vote option, 41
Problem solving: classification of problems/needs for, 60, 101; in

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program planning, 85-86; dealing with sensitive issues, 24-25; defining the
...problem, 24-27, 44-45; finding deficiencies and making improvements in
...written proposals and other documents, 46-47, 78-81; identifying
...opportunities, options, positions, problems, solutions, 4346; prioritizing
...opportunities, options, positions, problems, solutions, 60-66; in program
...planning, 85-86; via teleconferences, 144-145, 148-153. See also Leadership
Procter & Gamble, new-design, "green field" plants of, 135
Production committees. See Labor-management committees
Program planning: classification of problems/needs, 85-88; creating problem-
...solving groups, 86-88; defining problems/needs, 85-86; gaining acceptance of
...proposals resulting from, on part of nonparticipants, 90-91; name: problems or
...needs chart, 86-88; pre-meeting activity in, 85-88; use of multiple criteria for
...decision making in, 89-90
Project teams: problems with, 125; roles of INGT in enhancing performance of,
...125-126
Public sector organization development (OD): role of INGT in enhancing ...effectiveness of, 137; special problems associated with, 136-137

Quality circles: nature of, extent of usage of, 117-118; problems with, 118-119;
...roles of INGT in enhancing the performance of, 118-120
Quality-of-work-life programs. See Organization Development

Ragan, J.W., 140, 189
Rathbun, R. D., 147, 189
Rating scales, use of, in voting, 67-68
Ray, D. 187, 191
Recall, limits to, 34-36
Recognition, importance of, regarding contributions; 27-29
Remedial Action, module for Behavior Modeling training, 162
Renwick, P. A., 1, 186
Risk Description Technique, for gaining understanding and commitment, 91
Robey, D., 191
Room, dedicated, for teleconferences. See Dedicated room
Rosenberg, R. D., 11, 189
Rosenstein, E., 11, 189
Rosenthal, B. E., 144, 189
Ross, T. L., 8, 112, 188
Rucker Plan, modified Scanlon Plan: importance of participative decision
...making in, 7, 13; 113; performance of, 8; roles of INGT in enhancing
...performance of labor-management committees of, 115-117
Ruh, R., 13, 184

Saari, L., 3, 186
Sadler, P., 25, 189
Sales personnel, effects of participation upon, 8-9, 10-11
Samuel, Y., 1, 189
Sandberg, W.R., 140, 189
Scandinavian studies, of employee participation, 9-10, 112, 129-130
Scanlon, Joe, 113
Scanlon Plan: importance of participative decision making in, 7, 13, 11, 3;
...performance of, 8; roles of INGT in enhancing performance of labor-
...management committees of, 115-117; screening committee, 113; use of ...quality circles as part of, at Donnelly Mirrors, 117
Scanlon Plan Associates, 113
Schriesheim, C. A., 186
Schweiger, D. M., 140, 189

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Schwenk, C. R., 20, 189
Scott, R. c., 113, 189
Screening committees, importance of, to productivity-sharing plans and plant-
...wide incentive systems, 113
Seashore, S., 5, 187
Second vote option: importance of, 41; procedure for conducting, 65-66
Seelye, H. N., 118, 190 Self-deception, about real concerns of group members,
...23-25
Self-description, of leaders, versus anonymous subordinate descriptions, 24-25
Self-evaluation, as a leader. See Self-description
Self-managing work groups. See Autonomous or self-managing
...work groups
Sen, T., xv
Shaw, M. E., 2, 38, 190
Sherman, V. S., 148, 190
Ship-meets-ship conferences, of Norwegian merchant marine, 10
Short, J.: 146, 190
Silent writing period: importance of, 34; instructions for, 50
Simmons, J., 108, 110, 112, 190
Simon, H. A., 24, 182-183
Sims, H. P., Jr., 110, Ill, 138, 187
Singer, J. E., 129, 184
Sirota, D., 1, 168, 190
Size limit, for INGT groups, 93
Skodeverken. See Volvo
Slovic, P., 34, 183
Smith, F. J., 27, 28, 29, 190
Solution quality: impact of contributor status on, 18; need for unrestricted idea
...inputting to obtain highest level of, 24-25; role of assured discussion
...opportunity in producing, 38
Sorge, A., 190
SPAN III (Social Participatory Allocative Network), for voting, 69-70
Spector, B., 183
Standard score equivalents, of average rank scores, to permit inter-group
...outcome comparisons, 72-77
Starbuck, W., 21, 184
Status: as a determiner of outcomes, 18, 25-26, 40-41; as a problem when low
...for a group member, 27-28
Stewart, T. R., 186
Stokes, B., 14, 190
Studies, on participation, involving. See Participation studies, involving
Stylistic objectives, to facilitate goal congruence, 104-105
Sullivan, J. J., 24, 42, 190
Supplies, needed for INGT meeting, 48
Survey feedback programs: problems with, 120; roles of INGT for enhancing
...performance of, 120-121; use of Behavior Modeling training in, 120
Swap, W. C., 182
Sween, J. A., 118, 190
System design, effectively integrating the work of professionals and
...nonprofessionals, 30-31

Tannenbaum, A. S., 130
Tardiness: how to deal with, 36; problems with, 19
Teambuilding: development and maintenance of participation opportunity, a key
...factor in, 129-133; effects of group development stages upon, 110-111, 135-
...136, 140; importance of, 89, 103-104; via informal groups, 157-158; roles of
...INGT for, 110-111, 138-140
Teamwork: how threatened, in conventional MBO programs, 103; importance
...of, 8-9, 103-104; need for MBGO as well as MBO to safeguard, 103-106
Teleconferences: audio conferencing with graphics transmission,

[203]

...143, 150-151; audio-only conferencing, 142, 146-150; computer
...conferencing, 144-146, 148, 152-153, 155-156; dedicated rooms for, 143;
...estimated usage of, 141; international, 145-146, 155-156; roles of INGT for
...enhancing effectiveness of, 149-153; user reactions to, 146-148; video
...conferencing, 144, 146-147, 151-152; visual cues in relation to, 146, 148, 156
Teleconferences, international, 145-146, 155-156; coordinators for, 143;
...providers of rental facilities for, 144; software for, 145. See also Teleconferences
TeleSpan Newsletter, 141, 143, 190
TeleSpan's Definitive Guide to Teleconferencing Products and Services, 142
Temporary groups: problems with, 122; roles of INGT for enhancing
...performance of, 122-127
Test-yourself quiz, on INGT basics, 169-173; answer section for, 173-180
Thorsrud, E., 9, 108, 190
Tichy, N. M., 108, 109, 190
Ties in ranking, how to handle, 61-62
Time: estimates of, devoted to meetings by executives, 32; required for an
...INGT meeting, 37; wasting of, in conventional procedure meetings, 21
Torrance, E. P., 18, 25, 28, 191
Training, need for, on part of leaders of: any group, 22; autonomous or self-
...managing work groups, 108, 110; committees of various gain-sharing plans or
...plant-wide incentive systems, 113; new-design or "green field" plants, 135;
...quality circles, 118; survey feedback committees, 120. See also Behavior
...Modeling training
Transcription, of inputs for display, 51-52; equipment needed for, 48; recording
...changes, 53; use of multiple flipcharts for, 51-52
Trist, E., 108, 191
Trust, and supervisory openness to influence, 28-29
Tuckman, J., 18, 39, 191
Turoff, M., 148, 155, 184-185, 191
Two faces of power, and their relation to organization development, 132-133
Tyson, J., 144, 191

Uncertainty avoidance, cross-cultural. differences in perception of, 167
Ury, W., 123, 124, 155, 183
U.S. Department of Defense, teleconferencing studies of, 146-147
U.S. General Accounting Office, 8, 113, 191

Vallee, J., 152, 191
Van de Ven, A. H., 30, 34, 42, 82, 85, 93, 183, 191
Verser, G. c., 91, 187
Video teleconferencing: adaptations of INGT to, for enhancing effectiveness,
...151-152; nature of, and growth in usage, 144; providers of rental facilities for,
...144; versus audio-only conferencing and face-to-face meetings, 146-147
Visual cues, in relation to teleconferencing, 146, 148
Viswanathan, N., 191
Volunteer venture teams, why INGT should improve performance of, 126-127
Volvo, early experience with movement toward autonomous work groups at
...company's Skodeverken, 108
Voting: adjusting for different group average rank scores to permit a comparison
...of results of, 67, 72-77; conducting the

[203]

...first vote, 60-65; for a document review meeting, 79-80; need for permanent
...use of a secret ballot, 40-41; no optimal procedure for, 66; only INGT uses of
...decision by majority vote, 55, 80; the problem of preference gaps, 6768;
...ranking versus rating scales, 67-69; sample ballot, 63; sample tally sheet, 64;
...second vote procedure, 66; use of point assignment in, 69; use of SPAN III
...(Social Participatory Allocative Network) for, 69-70; value of the second-vote
...option, 65-66
Vredenburgh, D. J., 2, 168, 181
Wakeley, J., 13, 184
Waterman, R. H., Jr., 104, 105, 126, 189
White, D. D., 118, 191-192
White, J. K., 7, 192
White, P. N., 146, 181
White, T. H., 186
Williams, E., 146, 190
Wilpert, A., 190
Witte, J. F., 131, 192
Work redesign. See Job redesign Workshops, teleconferencing, 142

Young, I., 147, 181-182


Effective Group Problem Solving Cover Contents Preface Chapter One
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